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Does this verse “إِذ يبايِعونك تحت الشجرة” prove the justice of all Sahaba?
ID: 542 Publish Date: 27 March 2017 - 10:39 Count Views: 1598
Question & Answer » Companions
Does this verse “إِذ يبايِعونك تحت الشجرة” prove the justice of all Sahaba?


Questioner: Muhammad Ja’far


One of verses that Sunni rely on to prove the justice of all Sahaba and god’s permanent satisfaction of those who attended this event, is Sura Al-Fath verse 18, god says in this verse:

لَقَدْ رَضِيَ اللَّهُ عَنِ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ إِذْ يُبَايِعُونَكَ تَحْتَ الشَّجَرَةِ فَعَلِمَ مَا فِي قُلُوبِهِمْ فَأَنْزَلَ السَّكِينَةَ عَلَيْهِمْ وَأَثَابَهُمْ فَتْحًا قَرِيبًا.

Allah was pleased with the believers when they swore allegiance to you under the tree and He knew what was in their hearts. Therefore, He sent down tranquility upon them and rewarded them with a victory close by.

Sura Al-Fath – verse 18

First response: this verse doesn’t include all sahaba, but it contains those who were in treaty of “Rezwan” and their number -as Sunni scholars have quoted - was 1300 to 1400. As “Muhammad Ismael Bukhari” writes:

4463 ، عَنْ جَابِرٍ قَالَ كُنَّا يَوْمَ الْحُدَيْبِيَةِ أَلْفًا وَأَرْبَعَ مِائَةٍ.

It’s been quoted from “Jabir” who said: on the day of “Hudaybiyah”, we were one thousand and four hundred persons.

And it’s one percent and half or at the most two percent of all the companions of Prophet Muhammad {Sahaha}. when Prophet died, the number of sahaba was more than one hundred thousand. So, we can’t prove the justice of all sahaba or god’s satisfaction from all of them by this verse.

Second response: god’s satisfaction won’t contain all of those who swore allegiance on that day; but it only includes those who swore allegiance while having real faith; because god has conditioned his satisfaction on having faith. « رَضِيَ اللَّهُ عَنِ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ »

If real faith wasn’t the condition of satisfaction, god would say:

لقد رضي الله عن الذين يبايعونك ... 

In another word: ultimate thing that we can understand from this verse is that god is pleased with all believers who swore allegiance; but it never proves that all of those who have sworn allegiance were real believer; so, by this word “عَنِ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ”, hypocrites such as: “Abdullah ibn Abi” or those who had doubted about their faith and didn’t swear allegiance wholeheartedly won’t be amongst those whom god is pleased with them. As it doesn’t contain those who didn’t swear allegiance.

So, this verse doesn’t include guys like “Umar ibn Khattab” who doubted about prophecy of Prophet Muhammad [PBUH] and swore allegiance not because he believed in Prophet [PBUH]. The story of Umar ibn Khattab’s doubt about the prophecy of messenger of god is written in many Sunni books comprehensively that its summery is as follow:

Prophet saw in true dream that he’s entered “Mecca” and is performing “Tawaf” along with sahaba. In the morning, he shared his dream with them, they asked about its interpretation, Prophet Muhammad [PBUH] said: god willing, we’ll enter “Mecca” and perform “Umrah” rituals”. But he didn’t say when it’ll happen.

All people were ready to move and when they arrived to “Hudaybiyyah”. People of “Quraysh” tribe were notified of arrival of Prophet and his companions and their intention; that’s why all of them got armed and didn’t let Muslims coming to “Mecca”. Since prophet Muhammad [PBUH] had gone there pilgrimaging “kaaba” not fighting, he signed peace treaty with “Quraysh” so that they avoid entering “Mecca” and return next year without problem performing “Umrah” rituals. This matter caused “Umar ibn Khattab” and his like-minded. To doubt about the prophecy of messenger of god [PBUH] and he thought that Prophet has lied; that’s why he went to Prophet Muhammad [PBUH] and protested to him.

“Al-Dhahabi” quotes this event in “The history of Islam” book:

... فقال عمر : والله ما شككت منذ أسلمت إلا يومئذ ، فأتيت النبي صلي الله عليه وسلم فقلت : يا رسول الله ، ألست نبي الله قال : بلي قلت : ألسنا علي الحق وعدونا علي الباطل قال : بلي قلت : فلم نعطي الدنية في ديننا إذا قال : إني رسول الله ولست أعصيه وهو ناصري . قلت : أولست كنت تحدثنا أنا سنأتي البيت فنطوف حقا قال : بلي ، أفأخبرتك أنك تأتيه العام قلت : لا . قال : فإنك آتيه ومطوف به ... .

“Umar ibn Khattab” said: swear to god! Since I’ve converted to Islam, I’ve not doubted about the prophecy of messenger of god. {except today}. Then he went to Prophet [PBUH] and said: O messenger of god! Aren’t you god’s Prophet? Prophet [PBUH] said: Yes, I’m. “Umar” said: aren’t we right and out enemies wrong? Yes, we are. “Umar” said: so why do we show humiliation in our religion? Prophet said: I’m god’s Prophet and never disobey his orders and he’s my supporter. “Umar” said: didn’t you say that we’ll go to “Kaaba” and perform “Tawaf”? Prophet [PBUH] said: did I say that we’ll do so this year? “Umar ibn Khattab” said: No, you didn’t. Prophet said: you’ll enter mecca and perform “Tawaf”.

“Al-Dhahabi”- The History of Islam – vol. 2, p 371-372 /// “Ibn Habban”- Sahih Ibn Habban – vol. 11, p 224 // “Al-San’ani” – al-Musnaf – vol. 5, p 339-340 /// “Tabarani” – al-Mu’jam al-Kabir – vol. 20, p 14 and ….

What interesting is that “Umar ibn Khattab” doesn’t trust his own saying and to make sure he goes to his permanent ally “Abu-Bakr” and repeats this saying for him and what more interesting is that “Abu-Bakr” repeats what Prophet [PBUH] said!

This narrative by “Bukhari” and “Muslim” too; but as always, to keep the reputation of caliph, they have deleted this sentence « والله ما شككت منذ أسلمت إلا يومئذ » and quoted the narrative as they like.

“Sahih Muslim”- vol. 5, p 175 /// “Sahih al-Bukhari” – vol. 4, p 70 and vol. 6, p 45

“Muhammad ibn Umar ibn Waqedi” Sunni well-known historian writes:

. . . فكان ابن عباس رضي اللّه عنه يقول : قال لي في خلافته ]يعني عمر[ وذكر القضية : إرتبت ارتياباً لم أرتبه منذ أسلمت إلا يومئذ ، ولو وجدت ذاك اليوم شيعة تخرج عنهم رغبة عن القضية لخرجت.

“Ibn Abbas” says: when he was caliph, “Umar ibn Khattab” remembered the event of “Hudaybiyah” and said: on that day, I doubted about the prophecy of Prophet [PBUH]. Ever since we’ve converted to Islam, I hadn’t faced such doubt. If on that day I had found guys to obey me and leave the treaty voluntarily, I’d do so as well.

Then “Waqedi” quotes from “Abu Saed Khederi” that “Umar ibn Khattab” told him:

... والله لقد دخلني يومئذٍ من الشك حتي قلت في نفسي : لو كنا مائة رجلٍ علي مثل رأيي ما دخلنا فيه أبداً ! .

Swear to god! I had doubted a lot that I’d say to myself: if 100 persons had the same opinion as me, I’d never accept this treaty.

“Al-Waqedi”- al-Mughazi book – vol. 1, p 144, You can find this book on this site: http://www.alwarraq.com

Is that possible that god announces his permanent satisfaction of such guy? Can lack of having heart faith to the prophecy of Prophet [PBUH] and doubting it be gathered with god’s satisfaction from that person?!

Third response: this satisfaction can’t be permanent and eternal or guarantee good ending of all of those who were there; because the ultimate thing that verse shows is that god got pleased with them when they sow allegiance and reason of satisfaction is the treaty that they signed on that day,

In another word: this satisfaction will remain as long as its reason which is treaty and allegiance remain and no change is made in them; because the existence of caused without reason is impossible.

God’s satisfaction from people is only because of the deed that they do and god won’t be pleased with them without that deed; it means god is pleased with him as long as that act hasn’t been removed; but when he removes that good deed by committing sin, god’s satisfaction is removed too.

The best reason proving this issue is the verse that god has sent down about this treaty:

إِنَّ الَّذِينَ يُبَايِعُونَكَ إِنَّمَا يُبَايِعُونَ اللَّهَ يَدُ اللَّهِ فَوْقَ أَيْدِيهِمْ فَمَن نَّكَثَ فَإِنَّمَا يَنكُثُ عَليَ نَفْسِهِ وَ مَنْ أَوْفيَ بِمَا عَاهَدَ عَلَيْهُ اللَّهَ فَسَيُؤْتِيهِ أَجْرًا عَظِيمًا.

Those who swear allegiance to you swear allegiance to Allah. The Hand of Allah is above their hands. He who breaks his oath breaks it against his self, but for he that keeps his covenant made with Allah, Allah shall give him a mighty wage.

Sura Al-Fath – verse 10

So, verse only includes those who swore allegiance on that day and kept it by the end of their life. And if satisfaction were to be eternal, it wouldn’t be necessary that god says:

 فَمَن نَّكَثَ فَإِنَّمَا يَنكُثُ.

This issue can be used from many of narratives, as “Malik ibn Anas” quotes:

عَنْ أَبِي النَّضْرِ مَوْلَي عُمَرَ بْنِ عُبَيْدِ اللَّهِ أَنَّهُ بَلَغَهُ أَنَّ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ صَلَّي اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ قَالَ لِشُهَدَاءِ أُحُدٍ هَؤُلَاءِ أَشْهَدُ عَلَيْهِمْ فَقَالَ أَبُو بَكْرٍ الصِّدِّيقُ أَلَسْنَا يَا رَسُولَ اللَّهِ بِإِخْوَانِهِمْ أَسْلَمْنَا كَمَا أَسْلَمُوا وَجَاهَدْنَا كَمَا جَاهَدُوا فَقَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صَلَّي اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ بَلَي وَلَكِنْ لَا أَدْرِي مَا تُحْدِثُونَ بَعْدِي فَبَكَي أَبُو بَكْرٍ ثُمَّ بَكَي ... .

Messenger of god [PBUH] said about martyrs of the battle of “Uhud”: I bear witness that they were my brothers and good people. “Abu-Bakr” said: were we their brothers? We converted to Islam and fought in god’s way as they converted to Islam and fought in god’s way, messenger of god [PBUH] said: Yes; but I don’t know what you’ll do to my religion after me. “Abu-Bakr” cried after hearing this sentence.

This Hadith says explicitly that good ending of people like “Abu-Bakr” depends on this that they don’t break their oath in the future.

Fourth response: some of sahaba who were in this allegiance, have confessed to breaking this allegiance, such as: “Al-Bara’ ibn Azeb”, “Abu Saed Khederi” and “Aisha”.

A: “Al-Bara’ ibn Azeb”: “Bukhari” says in his “Sahih”:

 عَنْ الْعَلَاءِ بْنِ الْمُسَيَّبِ عَنْ أَبِيهِ قَالَ لَقِيتُ الْبَرَاءَ بْنَ عَازِبٍ رَضِيَ اللَّهُ عَنْهُمَا فَقُلْتُ طُوبَي لَكَ صَحِبْتَ النَّبِيَّ صَلَّي اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ وَبَايَعْتَهُ تَحْتَ الشَّجَرَةِ فَقَالَ يَا ابْنَ أَخِي إِنَّكَ لَا تَدْرِي مَا أَحْدَثْنَا بَعْدَهُ.

“Ala’ ibn Musayyib” quotes from his father that I met with “Bara’ bin Azeb” and said: good for you, you were with Prophet [PBUH] and swore allegiance under the tree. “Bara’ bin Azeb”: son of my brother! You have no idea that what “Bid’ah” we made after Prophet [PBUH].

“Sahih Bukhari” – vol. 5, p 65

“Bara’ ibn Azeb” who is amongst elders of sahaba confesses that he and those who attended this event made a lot of “Bid’ah” after Prophet [PBUH] and it shows that god’s satisfaction from those who swore allegiance in “Hudaybiyyah” hasn’t been eternal and permanent.

B: confession of “Abi Saed Khederi”: “Ibn Hajar Asqalani” writes:

عن العلاء بن المسيب عن أبيه عن أبي سعيد قلنا له هنيئا لك برؤية رسول الله صلي الله عليه وسلم وصحبته قال إنك لا تدري ما أحدثنا بعده.

“Ala’ ibn Masayyib” quotes from his father and he quotes from “Abu Saed” that we told “Abu Saed”: good for you, you saw messenger of god [PBUH] and became his companion!. “Abu Saed” said: you don’t know what “Bid’ah” we created after him.

“Ibn Hajar” – Al-Isabah – vol. 3, p 67

C: “Aisha”:

“Al-Dhahabi” says in “Siyar al-Alam al-Nubala”:

عن قيس ، قال : قالت عائشة... إني أحدثت بعد رسول الله صلي الله عليه وسلم حدثا ، ادفنوني مع أزواجه . فدفنت بالبقيع رضي الله عنها.

“Qais” has been quoted that “Aisha” would say: after messenger of god [PBUH], I created many “Bid’ah”. Bury me with Prophet’s wives, they bury her in “Baqi’” cemetery.

“Al-Dhahabi” – Siyar al-A’lam al-Nubala – vol. 2, p 193 /// “Muhammad ibn Sa’d” – al-Tabaqat al-Kubra – vol. 8, p 74

“Hakim Nishapuri” quotes this narrative as well and says:

هذا حديث صحيح علي شرط الشيخين ولم يخرجاه.

“Al-Mustadrak alaa al-Sahihayn” – vol. 4, p 6

And in “description of Al-Mustadrak” book, “Al-Dhahabi” confirms his idea.


This verse doesn’t contain all of companions of messenger of god [PBUH]; but it just contains believers who were in that event and kept their oath by the end of their life.

Good luck.


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